The Treaty of New Echota

Dec. 29, 1835

This treaty started the  infamous Cherokee Removal

known as  'The Trail of Tears' where 4,000 men, women, and

children of our Nation died along their  way to Indian Territory 

1. The Cherokee Nation cedes to the United States all the land claimed by said Nation east of the Mississippi River, and hereby releases all claims on the United States for spoliation of every kind for and in consideration of $5,000,000. In case the United States Senate should decide that this sum does not include spoliation claims, then $300,000 additional should be allowed for that purpose.

2. The description of the 7,000,000 acres of land guaranteed to the Cherokees west of the Mississippi by the Treaties of 1828 and 1833 is repeated, and in addition thereto the further guaranty is made to the Cherokee Nation of a perpetual outlet west, and a free and unmolested use of all the country west of the western boundary of said 7,000,000 acres, as far west as the sovereignty of the United States and their right of soil extend, provided that if the salt plain shall fall within the limits of said outlet the right is reserved to the United States to permit other tribes of Indians to procure salt thereon. "And letters patent shall be issued by the United States as soon as practicable for the land hereby guaranteed."

It being apprehended that the above would afford insufficient land for the Cherokees, the United States, in consideration of $500,000, agree to patent to them in fee simple the following additional tract, viz.: Beginning at the southeast corner of the Osage Reservation, and running north along the east line of the Osage lands 50 miles to the northeast corner thereof, thence east to the west lineof the State of Missouri, thence with said line south 50 miles, thence west to the place of beginning, estimated to contain 800,00 acres, it being understood that if any of the Quapaw lands should fall within these limits they should be excepted.

3. All the foregoing described lands to be included in one patent, under the provisions of the act of May 28, 1830; the United States to retain possession of the Fort Gibson military reservation until abandoned, when it shall revert to the Cherokees. The United States reserve the right to establish post and military roads and forts in any part of the Cherokee country.

4. The United States agree to extinguish for the Cherokees the Osage half-breed titles to reservations under the treaty of 1825 for the sum of $15,000. The United States agree to pay to the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions the appraised value of their improvements at Union and Harmony Missions.

5. The United States agree that the land herein guaranteed to the Cherokees shall never, without their consent, be included within the limits or jurisdiction of any State or Territory. The United States also agree to secure them the right to make and carry into effect such laws as they deem necessary, provided they shall not be inconsistence with the Constitution of the United States and such acts of Congress as provide for the regulation of trade and intercourse with the Indian tribes; and provided also they shall not effect such citizens and army of the United States as may travel or reside in the Indian country by permission granted under the laws or regulations thereof.

6. Perpetual peace shall exist between the United States and the Cherokees. The United States shall protect the Cherokees from domestic strife, foreign enemies, and from war with other tribes, as well as from the unlawful intrusion of citizens of the United States. The Cherokees shall endeavor to maintain peace among themselves and with their neighbors.

7. The Cherokees shall be entitled to a delegate in the United States House of Representative whenever Congress shall make provision for the same.

8. The United States agree to remove the Cherokees to their new home and to provide them with one year's subsistence thereafter. Those desiring to remove themselves shall be allowed a commutation of $33 1/3 per head in lieu of the one year's promised subsistence. Cherokees residing outside the limits of the nation who shall remove within two years to the new Cherokee country shall be entitled to the same allowances as others.

9. The United States agree to make an appraisement of the value of all Cherokee improvements and ferries. The just debts of the Indians shall be paid out of any moneys due them for improvements and claims. The Indians shall be furnished with sufficient funds for their removal, and the balance of their dues shall be paid them at the Cherokee Agency west of the Mississippi. Missionary establishments shall be appraised and the value paid to the treasures of the societies by whom they were established.

10. The President of the United States shall invest in good interest paying stocks the following sums for the benefit of the Cherokee people, the interest thereon only to be expended: $200,000, in addition to their present annuities, for a general national fund; $50,000 for an orphans fund; $150,000, in addition to existing school fund, for a permanent national school fund: the disbursement of the interest on the foregoing funds to be subject to examination and any misapplications thereof to be corrected by the President of the United States.

On two year's notice the Cherokee Council may withdraw their funds by the consent of the President and the United States Senate, and invest them in such manner as they deem proper. The United States agree to appropriate $60,000 to pay the just debts and claims against the Cherokee Nation held by citizens of the same, and also claims of citizens of the United States for services rendered the nation. $300,000 is appropriated by the United States to liquidate Cherokee claims against the United States for spoliations of everykind.

11. The Cherokees agree to commute their existing permanent annuity of $10,000 for the sum of $214,000, the same to be invested by the President as a part of the General Fund of the nation. Their present school fund shall also constitute a portion of the permanent national school fund.

12. Such Cherokees as are averse to removal west of the Mississippi and desire to become citizens of the states where they reside, if qualified to take care of themselves and their property, shall receive their proportion of all the personal benefits accruing under this treaty for claims, improvements, and per capita.

Such heads of Cherokee families as desire to reside within the States of North Carolina, Tennessee, and Alabama, subject to the laws thereof and qualified to become useful citizens, shall be entitled to a pre-emption right of 160 acres at the minimum Congress price, to include their improvements. John Ross and eleven others named are designated as a committee on the part of the Cherokees to recommend persons entitled to take pre-emption rights, to select the missionaries who shall be removed with the Nation, and to transact all business that may arise with the United States in carrying the treaty into effect. $100,000 shall be expended by the United States for the benefit of such of the poorer classes of Cherokees as shall remove west.

13. All Cherokees and their heirs to whom reservations had been made by any previous treaty, and who not sold or disposed of the name, such reservations being subsequently sold by the United States should be entitled to receive the present value thereof from the United States as unimproved lands. All such reservations not sold were to be confirmed to the reservees or their heirs. All persons entitled to reservations under Treaty of 1817, whose reservations, as selected, were included by the Treaty of 1819 in the unceded lands of the Cherokee Nation, shall be entitled to a grant for the same.

All reservees who were obliged by the laws of the states in which their reservations were situated to abandon the same or purchase them from the states, shall be deemed to have a just claim against the United States for the value thereof or for the amount paid therefor, with interest. The amount allowed for reservations under this article is to be paid independently, and not out of the consideration allowed to the Cherokees for spoliation claims and their cession of lands.

14. Cherokee warriors wounded in the service of the United States during the late war with Great Britain and the southern tribes of Indians shall be allowed such pensions as Congress shall provide.

15. The balance of the consideration herein stated, after deducting the amount actually expended for improvements, ferries, claims, spoliations, removal, subsistence, debts, and claims upon the Cherokee Nation, additional quantity of lands, goods for the poorer class of Cherokees, and the several sums to be invested for the general national funds, shall be devided equally among all the people belonging to the Cherokee Nation east, according to the census just completed. Certain Cherokees who had removed west since June, 1833, were to be paid for their improvements.

16. The Cherokees stipulate to remove west within two years from the ratification of this treaty, during which time the United States shall protect them in the possession and enjoyment of their property, and in case of failure to do so shall pay all losses and damages sustained by them in consequence thereof. The United States and the several states interested in the Cherokee lands immediately proceed to survey the lands ceded by this treaty, but the agency building and tract of land surveyed and laid off for the use of Col. R.J. Meigs, Indian Agent, shall continue subject to the control of the United States or such agent as may be specially engaged in superintending the removal of the tribe.

17. All claims arising under or provided for in this treaty shall be examined and adjudicated by General William Carroll and John F. Schermerhorn, or by such commissioners as shall be appointed by the President of the United States for that purpose, and their decision shall be final, and the several claimants shall be paid on their certificate by the United States. All stipulations of former treaties not superseded or annulled by this treaty shall continue in force.

18. The annuities of the nation which may accrue during the next two years preceding their removal shall, on account of the failure of crops. be expended in provisions and clothing for the benefit of the poorer classes of the nation as soon after the ratification of this treaty as an appropriation shall be made. No interference is, however, intended with that part of the annuities due the Cherokee west under the Treaty of 1819.

19. This treaty is to be obligatory after ratification.

20. The United States guarantee the payment of all unpaid just claims upon the Indians, without expense to them, out of the proper funds of the United States for the settlement of which a cession or cessions of land has or have been heretofore made by the Indians in Georgia, provided the United States or State of Georgia has derived benefit therefrom without having made payment therefor.